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Intro

In order to explore the viability of different matching approaches, we decided to do some matching experiments and see what we can see.

  • We'll use the web search interfaces of the target data sets described below and do manual searching.
    Please add web links below.
  • For best results with automated matching, the target data sets wil/l be loaded locally.

Terms to match

Please add a random sampling of data below

BM People-Organizations

Target: VIAF

  • Incorporates Getty ULAN, but has fewer fields (eg doesn't know person-person relations)
  • VIAF has a loadable data set and Vlado has explored it somewhat
  • Note: don't expect to find in VIAF many people that are not authors/artists. Eg

Rembrandt in ULAN

Let's see what ULAN has on Rembrandt:
http://www.getty.edu/vow/ULANFullDisplay?find=rembrandt&role=&nation=&prev_page=1&subjectid=500011051

  • Important ground-facts that we should use:
    • full list of alternative names (with useful scope notes)
    • nationalities
    • roles/professions
    • gender
    • birth/death dates and places
    • period and place(s) of activity
  • Related people (family relations but also patron/ teacher/ follower...).
    • This is a great resource, with definite info, and we should strive to use it.
    • It is mathematically closed (maps from people to people), so once we have a match we should leverage it to generate other matches.
    • It does not make us solve a harder task (matching Works), as a map person->Works would do.
  • NO list of works. Getty's only now working on CONA, but I guess it will be many years
  • Lists of refs to biographies, references, subject classifications, contributing institutions.
    This established provenance, but not data useful for matching

Rembrandt in VIAF

Let's see what VIAF has on Person = Rembrandt Rijn
There are 3 uncorrelated clusters for Rembrandt, plus 6 more clusters about other people.

Let's see the main cluster:
http://viaf.org/viaf/64013650/#Rembrandt_Harmenszoon_van_Rijn,_1606-1669

It does list 86 works under "Uniform Title Links".

  • A lot of these are not coreferenced e.g. "Die Anatomie des Doktor Tulp" vs "Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp"
  • See how many names about a single work:
    http://viaf.org/viaf/175917895/
    Bethsabée au bain tenant la lettre de David‏
    athsheba reading King David's letter‏
    athsheba with King David's letter‏
    ethsabée tenant la lettre du roi David‏
    Bathseba‏
    Bathsheba bathing‏
    Bathsheba with David's letter‏
    Bathsheba reading King David's letter‏
    Bathsheba with King David's letter‏
    Bethsabée au bain tenant la lettre de David‏
    Bethsabée tenant la lettre du roi David‏

BM People query

BM People sample

id prefName altNames notes gender nationality birth death
165242 Daniel Tainturier Tainturier, Daniel Barrister Male British   1746
165244 Catherine Tait Tait, Catherine; Spooner, Catherine Wife of Archibald Campbell Tait Female British 1819 1878
165245 Craufurd Tait Tait, Craufurd Son of Archibald and Catherine Tait Male British 1849 1878
165246 John Tait Tait, John Broom-seller; centenarian Male British 1662 1772
165247 John Tait Tait, John Of Harvieston Male British 1727 1800
165249 Mrs Tait Tait   Female British fl. c. 1829  
165248 Juan Armengol Armengol, Juan Silversmith from San Juan Chamultepec. Male Mexican    
165250 Charles Talbot, 1st Baron Talbot Talbot, Charles; Talbot Lord chancellor Male British 1685 1737
165251 Charles Chetwynd-Talbot, 2nd Earl Talbot Chetwynd-Talbot, Charles; Talbot KG; KP; lord lieutenant of Ireland Male British 1777 1849
165252 Hon Arabella Talbot Talbot, Arabella; Ogle, Arabella Wife of Hon Robert Talbot; m 1 Edward Bouverie Female British   1855
165253 Catherine Talbot Talbot, Catherine Writer; friend of Mrs Elizabeth Carter; died unmarried Female British 1721 1770
165255 Christopher Rice Mansel Talbot Talbot, Christopher Rice Mansel politician/statesman; MP for Glamorganshire Male British 1803 1890
165254 Da Silva Da Silva Painted a portrait of Gomes de Mesquita (d. 1751), engraved in mezzotint by Faber Junr., with a Portuguese inscription. His name on the print is given as 'Sl da Silva'.        
165256 Edward Stuart Talbot, Bishop of Winchester Talbot, Edward Stuart; Winchester DD Male British 1844  
165257 Sir Gilbert Talbot Talbot, Gilbert KG; of Grafton; Worcestershire; son of 2nd Earl of Shrewsbury; soldier, merchant and diplomatist Male British   1515

Alfred Smith

  • BM data:
    id prefName altNames activity gender nationality birth death
    78705 Alfred Smith Smith, Alfred clockmaker/watchmaker Male British - -
    195294 Alfred Smith Smith, Alfred architect Male British - -
  • ULAN data:
    id Uniform name Roles Gender Nationalities birth death
    500007285 Smith, Alfred (French artist, 1853-1942) artist,painter male French 1853 1942
    500007285 Smith, Carlton Alfred (British painter, 1853-1946) artist,painter male British 1853 1946

In this case we can do reliable matching (NO match) based on the structured data: Activity does not match Roles.

BM People to ULAN

BM BM prefName altNames gender nationality birth death AAT *AAT
165242 Daniel Tainturier Tainturier, Daniel Male British   1746
165244 Catherine Tait Tait, Catherine; Spooner, Catherine Female British 1819 1878
165245 Craufurd Tait Tait, Craufurd Male British 1849 1878
165246 John Tait Tait, John Male British 1662 1772
165247 John Tait Tait, John Male British 1727 1800
165249 Mrs Tait Tait Female British fl. c. 1829  
165248 Juan Armengol Armengol, Juan Male Mexican    
165250 Charles Talbot, 1st Baron Talbot Talbot, Charles; Talbot Male British 1685 1737
165251 Charles Chetwynd-Talbot, 2nd Earl Talbot Chetwynd-Talbot, Charles; Talbot Male British 1777 1849
165252 Hon Arabella Talbot Talbot, Arabella; Ogle, Arabella Female British   1855
165253 Catherine Talbot Talbot, Catherine Female British 1721 1770
165255 Christopher Rice Mansel Talbot Talbot, Christopher Rice Mansel Male British 1803 1890
165254 Da Silva Da Silva        
165256 Edward Stuart Talbot, Bishop of Winchester Talbot, Edward Stuart; Winchester Male British 1844  
165257 Sir Gilbert Talbot Talbot, Gilbert Male British   1515

BM Places

Target: there are 3 competing data sets and no clear winner

  • GeoNames is the best source of modern names.
    But museum data sometimes goes below the place level (eg a certain Cathedral or Theatre)
  • Pleiades for ancient names
  • Getty TGN

BM Places query

Note: you'll get some Archaic names if you set offset 100.

BM Places sample

id prefName broaders altNames nameType placeType
x68383 Somie Cameroon   Modern O
x68384 Adamaoua Cameroon   Modern E
x68385 Jerba Island Tunisia   Modern G
x68390 Benguela Angola   Modern E
x22149 Angola Africa Portuguese Congo Modern C
x68399 Tadjoura Djibouti   Modern K
x56040 Djibouti Africa French Somaliland; Jibuti Modern C
x68410 Lardo Africa   Modern O
x68414 Bukuti Democratic Republic of Congo   Modern I
x101341 Valencia region Spain   Modern D
x18339 Spain Europe   Modern C
x68421 Unyamwezi Tanzania Nyamwezi; Unyamuesi Modern G
x68422 Basoko Orientale   Modern K
x64942 Orientale Democratic Republic of Congo Haut-Zaire; Upper Zaire Modern E
x68424 Toski Sudan   Modern O
x21095 Sudan Africa Anglo-Egyptian Sudan; Egyptian Sudan Modern C
x68425 Kibonge Democratic Republic of Congo   Modern O
x68428 Kupoujo Democratic Republic of Congo   Modern O
x68429 Lualaba Katanga   Modern I
x55444 Katanga Democratic Republic of Congo Shaba Modern E

BM Objects

Target: Getty AAT, Objects facet
Auxiliary source: Wordnet.

BM Objects query

BM Objects sample

object prefLabel altLabels broaders scopeNote
thes:x7429 jingaza   hat -
thes:x9907 waist-ring   waist-ornament -
thes:x5234 arms-holder   arms equipment; holder -
thes:x9013 sheath scabbard arms/armour The term 'sheath' is restricted to the context of arms equipment. See also Narrow Terms 'saya' and 'shirazaya'.
thes:x5235 arms-rest   arms equipment; rest -
thes:x8749 rest tool-rest miscellaneous equipment -
thes:x6372 dart-notcher   tool/implement -
thes:x7308 hunting equipment   agriculture/subsistence This includes objects associated with hunting for sport as well as for subsistence. See also FISHING EQUIPMENT, GAMES AND SPORTS and WEAPON categories.
thes:x5237 arquebus   gun -
thes:x7098 gun fire-arm; flintlock; matchlock weapon -
thes:x5238 arrow   ammunition -
thes:x5245 arrow-stand   arms equipment; stand -
thes:x6370 dart   ammunition -
thes:x8668 quiver   arms-holder -
thes:x5239 arrow-case   ammunition-case -
thes:x5240 arrow-head arrow head; arrow point; arrowhead; arrow-point arrow; component This term is only entered as an Object Name for arrow heads found on their own. See also records with Object Name 'arrow'.
thes:x6121 component     -
thes:x5241 arrow-head-mould   weapon-mould -
thes:x9998 weapon-mould dagger-mould arms/armour; mould -
thes:x5242 arrow-holder   arms-holder -

BM Materials

Target: Getty AAT, Materials facet
Auxiliary source: Wordnet.

  • Eg see sysets and semantic relations for cotton

BM Materials query

BM Materials sample

material prefLabel altLabels broaders scopeNote
thes:x10402 bone   animal The form of the bone, eg: 'skull', 'femur', etc. should be entered in the Description field.
thes:x10369 bird claw   claw -
thes:x10589 claw talon animal -
thes:x10370 bird egg   egg Use for the whole egg, or the contents of the shell; for the eggshell, enter BIRD EGGSHELL.
thes:x10760 egg   animal product Use for the whole egg, or the contents of the shell; for the eggshell alone, enter EGGSHELL.
thes:x10371 bird eggshell   eggshell -
thes:x10761 eggshell   animal product Use the term for the shell only: if the egg is included, enter EGG.
thes:x10372 bird of paradise feather   feather -
thes:x10373 bird of paradise skin   bird skin -
thes:x10375 bird skin   skin -
thes:x10374 bird of paradise tissue   bird tissue -
thes:x10377 bison bone   mammal bone -
thes:x10378 bison hoof   hoof -
thes:x10379 bison horn   horn -
thes:x10380 bison skin   mammal skin -
thes:x10381 bison wool   wool -
thes:x11991 wool felt hair; textile Although felt may not be made entirely of wool, wool is a major constituent. Any additional materials are entered where known.
thes:x10383 black bear skin   bear skin -
thes:x10384 black lily root   lily root -
thes:x11112 lily root   root -

BM Materials to AAT

BM BM prefLabel = altLabels BM broaders AAT AAT term AAT hierarchy Notes
x10402 bone animal 300011798 bone (material) Materials Facet/ Materials (Hierarchy Name)/ <materials by composition>/ <combination inorganic/organic material>/ <combination inorganic/organic animal material>
ALT: Objects Facet/ Components (Hierarchy Name)/ components (objects)/ <components by specific context> / <animal or human components>
Qualifier in label
x10369 bird claw claw n/a n/a   There is "claw" but no "bird claw"
x10589 claw = talon animal 300379351 claws Objects Facet/ Components (Hierarchy Name)/ components (objects)/ <components by specific context> / <animal or human components> NO parent in Materials Facet (compare to "bone").
Shows that hierarchies in different thesauri are more brittle/arbitrary than labels
n/a n/a n/a 300040710 talons Objects Facet/ Components (Hierarchy Name)/ components (objects)/ <components by specific context>/ <furnishings components>/ <furniture components>/ <feet and foot components: furniture>/ <foot components> In AAT "talons" has altLabel "claws" but "claws" doesn't have altLabel "talons" (which IMHO is an omission).
In BM "claw" and "talon" are synonyms.
In wordnet "claw" is a hypernym of "talon" (which is defined as a "sharp hooked claw").
The AAT case shows that two synonyms could be used in totally unrelated subtrees, so disambiguation is needed
x10370 bird egg egg n/a n/a   There is "emu egg" but no "bird egg"
x10760 egg animal product 300011801 egg Materials Facet/ Materials (Hierarchy Name)/ materials (matter)/ <materials by origin>/ <biological material>/ animal material/ <animal material by form or function>/ <egg and egg components> Perfect match
x10371 bird eggshell eggshell n/a n/a   There is "ostrich eggshell" but no "bird eggshell"
x10761 eggshell animal product 300191893 eggshell (animal material) Materials Facet/ Materials (Hierarchy Name)/ materials (matter)/ <materials by origin>/ <biological material>/ animal material/ <animal material by form or function>/ <egg and egg components>/ <egg components> Multiword qualifier in name.
Another concept with different qualifier "eggshell (pottery style)" is unrelated.
Shows importance of handling qualifiers (not just throwing them out) for disambiguation
x10372 bird of paradise feather feather n/a n/a   No concept "bird of paradise" in AAT
x10373 bird of paradise skin bird skin n/a n/a   No concept "bird of paradise" in AAT
x10375 bird skin skin 300379982 bird skin Materials Facet/ Materials (Hierarchy Name)/ materials (matter)/ <materials by origin>/ <biological material>/ animal material/ <collagenous material>/ skin (collagenous material) Perfect match
x10374 bird of paradise tissue bird tissue n/a n/a   No concept "bird of paradise" in AAT
x10377 bison bone mammal bone n/a n/a AAT has "bone (material)", and separately "Bison (genus)" in "Agents Facet/ Living Organisms/ Eukaryota (domain)/ Animalia (kingdom)/ Chordata (phylum)/ Vertebrata (subphylum)/ Mammalia (class)/ Artiodactyla (order)/ Bovidae (family)"
BM: this is an example of a precoordinated (AND) term, which is generally considered a bad practice.
BM: it's a bit unclear whether this means Bison (genus) or one of its two species: "Bison bison" (American bison) or "Bison bonasus" (European bison)"
x10378 bison hoof hoof n/a n/a   See above
x10379 bison horn horn n/a n/a   See above
x10380 bison skin mammal skin n/a n/a   See above
x10381 bison wool wool n/a n/a   See above
x11991 wool = felt hair; textile 300243430 wool (textile) Materials Facet/ Materials (Hierarchy Name)/ materials (matter)/ <materials by form>/ <materials by physical form>/ <fiber and fiber products>/ <fiber products>/ <textile materials>/ <textile materials by composition or origin>  
      300014074 wool (hair) Materials Facet/ Materials (Hierarchy Name)/ materials (matter)/ <materials by origin>/ <biological material>/ animal material/ <keratinous material>/ <hair and hair components>/ hair/ <hair by form> BM term has two equally good exactMatches
AAT says in related concepts: "object(s) using/produced by wool (hair) are wool (textile)".
So AAT differentiates raw material from end product (which itself is a material), while BM does not
x10383 black bear skin bear skin        
x10384 black lily root lily root        
x11112 lily root root        
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