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Review of BM Association Mapping v2

Association Mapping Problems

Acquisition sub-event connected with inverse

Acquisition patterns (Transfer of Ownership and Change of Custody) connect both the main event and the sub-event to the object:

<obj> P24i_changed_ownership_through <obj/acquisition>.
<obj/acquisition> P9_consists_of <obj/acquisition/M>.
<obj/acquisition/M> P24_transferred_title_of <obj>. # not P24i

Why do you use P24 to connect the sub-event, instead of P24i that is used for the event?
This is a nitpicking since OWLIM infers P24i from P24, but for consistency and better interoperation with repos that don't infer inverses, it's better to use P24i in both cases.

Acquisition sub-event not connected

This one acquisition sub-event is not connected to the object (unlike all other sub-events)

Production sub-event not connected

Production patterns don't connect the sub-event to the object:

<obj> P108i_was_produced_by <obj/production>.
<obj/production> P9_consists_of <obj/production/M>.
<obj/production/M> P14_carried_out_by <person>. # P108i is missing

This is inconsistent with Acquisition, and makes it harder for us to find all sub-events. Please add P108i

Association is redundant when using a sub-event

Why use both EX_Association and P9_consists_of sub-event? Just put P2_has_type into the sub-event, don't use EX_Association

Closely Related Group

Take "produced by Workshop of Rembrandt".

  • Previously this was modeled as:
    Produced by E21_Person "Rembrandt" with Association "Workshop of"
  • Currently this is modeled as:
    Produced by E74_Group "Workshop of Rembrandt" with type "Workshop Of" and member E21_Person "Rembrandt"

The current way is more faithful to CRM, but it has some peculiarities/problems regarding search.
Remember that by FR Transitivity, search by Dutch finds paintings by Rembrandt, and paintings by Rembrandt are counted in Creator=Dutch facet.

  1. If you search for Rembrandt, you won't find paintings by Workshop of Rembrandt since the transitivity works the other way around.
    Discussed: this is ok: user needs to select the more specific term "Rembrandt"
  2. The Group is ad-hoc: it uses a local (per-object) URL and doesn't have the required attributes for a term (skos:prefLabel and skos:inScheme).
    To be searchable, the Group should be associated with a thesaurus (inScheme) that itself is registered in the meta-thesaurus.
    BM needs to fix
  3. If you search for Workshop of Rembrandt, you will find paintings by Rembrandt.
    Disussed: this is ok
  4. Paintings by Rembrandt will be counted in facets Workshop Of Rembrandt, School of Rembrandt, Circle of Rembrandt, and whatever other related groups are created.
    Discussed. Dominic: factually this is true, so it's ok

Vlado: Emmanuelle, forget about my suggestion yale:PX_is_founder_of, for now let's stick with P107 for consistency with BM

Closely Related Individual

This uses a property bmo:PX_pupil that is not a CRM extension. So a CRM-consuming application won't know about it.
I'd rewrite it to use the above pattern, i.e. a group consisting of a single person.

Other Problems

These are not related to Associations. They have not been discovered until now.


See eg

  • bibo:numPages is wrong, you should use bibo:pageStart and bibo:pageEnd for a continous page range.
  • Or if you have one field in Merlin, at least use bibo:pages
  • see BIBO documentation


  • wrong label:
    bmo:PX_physical_description rdf:type owl:DatatypeProperty ;
      rdfs:label "physical exhibition"

Poor Acquisition

For objects with little data about the acquisition, no proper E8_Acquisition record is made. You can find such objects with:

select * {?s a rso:FC70_Thing; crm:P50_has_current_keeper id:the-british-museum.
 filter(not exists {?s crm:P52_has_current_owner id:the-british-museum)}

Examples: RFM1654 (RDF, COL), WCO25205 WCO26021 WCO26113 WCO106044 RRM16709 ...

Eg RFM1654 has this acquisition data:

  • Acquisition name: Previous owner/ex-collection: Elijah Dowpey
  • Acquisition date: 1920

Which is mapped to this RDF:

<object/RFM1654> crm:P50_has_current_keeper id:the-british-museum, <thesauri/department/W>;
  crm:P51_has_former_or_current_owner <person-institution/9593>.
<object/RFM1654/acquisition> crm:P4_has_time-span <object/RFM1654/acquisition/date>;
  a crm:E8_Acquisition.
<object/RFM1654/acquisition/date> crm:P3_has_note "1920 ::";
  crm:P82a_begin_of_the_begin "1920-01-01"^^xsd:date;
  crm:P82b_end_of_the_end "1920-12-31"^^xsd:date;
  a crm:E52_Time-Span;
  rdfs:label "1920".

And has these problems:

  1. The Acquisition is not connected to the object (no P24i_changed_ownership_through), so the Acquisition date won't be printed
  2. No statement is made that BM is the current owner (P52_has_current_owner)

The above is mapped according to section BM Association Mapping v2#Former Owner, which comments: "All prev owners are listed with code PO "Previous owner/ex-collection", and the last one is listed with an Acquired From code". Section BM Association Mapping v2#Acquired From fixes the two problems above.
But in this case there is no Acquired From code in Merlin, which contravenes the comment, and leads to the missing statements.

The solution is to always emit these statements (from BM Association Mapping v2#Acquired From):

   P52_has_current_owner id:the-british-museum;
   P24i_changed_ownership_through <obj/acquisition>.
<obj/acquisition> a E8_Acquisition, E10_Transfer_of_Custody;
  P22_transferred_title_to <id:the-british-museum>.

I.e. we always know that the object must have been transferred to BM, even if there is no record from whom.

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